Risks & Applications

Immunological Applications:

Immune and allergy responses: delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH)

Immuno-toxicology: PBMC-FACS, endotoxemia

Autoimmue complications: rheumatoid arthritis, multiple sclerosis


Hematological Applications:

Hematopoiesis: anemia and HbF level

Hemostasis: bleeding, arteriovenous shunt, Wessler stasis, hemophilia

Arterial and venal thrombosis



Underlying Diseases and Risks:

Myocardial insufficiency

Intracerebral hemorrhage and ischemia

Renal function insufficiency

Liver injury and regeneration

Pulmonary function insufficiency

Metabolic disorders

Renal-Cardio syndrome

Cardiopulmonary syndrome


Age, Gender, and Specific Complications and Risks:

Organ injury and repair

Infant, youth, geriatric, female with menses and reproductive disorders

Exposure to cigarette smoke, chemical, and pollute

Reproductive biology: endometriosis, postpartum hemorrhage, and miscarriage

Chemotherapy and radiotherapy remission

Long-term effects and carcinogenesis


Drug Interactions and Side Effects:

Drug-drug interaction

Narcotic effect



Antidote effect