1、why are animal models important for understanding human diseases? Homologous animal models are important in biomedical research because they share more gene sequence homology with the human genome. Animal models in contrast to in vitro cellular models, mimicking the whole organ and systemic response of the disease, it is more relevant for understanding the body systemic response and more relevant to the drug efficacy and side effects evaluation. As models, scientists aim to produce artificially a condition in an animal in a laboratory, which may resemble the human equivalent of a medical disease or injury. The whole

2、what is disease modeling?
Disease modeling is defined as a tool to produce artificially a pathological condition in a laboratory environment, which mimics a certain disease. By doing this, it helps scientists and physicians to understand the pathogenesis or the mechanisms behind that specific disease. It can be within a living animal, called an animal model, or within cells, called a cellular model.

3、What is nonhuman primates (and experimental NHPs)
Nonhuman Primates (NHPs) refers to all kinds of monkeys and apes which shares the same order with human being in mammals biologically. Because of the genetically closest, biological, and social similarities that NHPs share with Human Being, they are very valuable animals for mimicking human disease. And those NHPs are called as experimental NHPs, which are specifically raised and bred for human disease modeling.

4、the significance (meaning) of nonhuman primates in biomedical research diseases
Nonhuman Primates (NHPs) are the closest animal models to humans regarding genetics, physiology, and behavior. Therefore, NHPs are critical for understanding certain physiology such as gynecology, neurology, and social behavior. NHPs are also very critical for human disease modeling, which certain disease only affects NHPs and Human beings such as AIDS. As the progress of drug development, more and more drugs are designed to target specific protein in the pathological process, Because the genetically closest identity with humans, NHPs share identical target proteins with humans. So the efficacy and safety data of the drug obtained from NHPs can be directly translated to the application on human patients.